As a representative US industrial city of the 20th century, Cleveland experienced major population decline and astonishing property vacancies beginning in 1960. In the last decade, Cleveland population has shrunk down 6.1 percent, and by the end of 2020, there are 44,259 vacant parcels and 12,179 vacant structures across the city. Population loss, poverty, unemployment, food desert, food miles and vacancy – contamination and lack of organic matter – are driving a movement towards a holistic approach to rationalize functional food development.
The good news is, in the late 1970s, Cleveland’s municipal government has already began supporting urban agriculture, and in recent years, Cleveland has integrated border food
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